Henry VIII : To whom was royal genealogy more important? Sign in | Register
RoyaList
Index of Names:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
This site is for sale!  Contact us for details. Full use of this site requires the acceptance of cookies - visit our privacy page to find out more.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster > Biography

 Sign in for the option of being alerted via email when these details change, or when new products are linked to this person.


Given Names: John  Family Name: Plantagenet
 
Titles: Knight of the Garter
  Earl of Richmond (1342 cr)
  Earl of Lancaster (1361 m - 1st)
  Earl of Derby (1362 m - 1st)
  Earl of Leicester (1362 m - 1st)
  Earl of Lincoln (1362 m - 1st)
  Duke of Lancaster (1362 cr - 1st)
  Duke of Aquitaine (1389 cr)
 
Born:
Ghent, Flanders, Belgium
Died:
Holborn, London, England
(Age 58, Natural Causes)
  English/Scottish Royal Blood: 100%   [?] Buried: St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England
 
Father: King Edward III 13 Nov 1312 - 22 Jun 1377
Mother: Philippa of Hainault About 1314 - 15 Aug 1369
 
Marriage: Blanche of Lancaster 1341 - 12 Sep 1369
  Date: 19 May 1359 His Age: 19 Her Age: 18
  Place:  Reading, Berkshire, England
  Offspring:
+9  Philippa Plantagenet 31 Mar 1360 - 19 Jul 1415
+0  John Plantagenet About 1362 - About 1365
+5  Elizabeth Plantagenet Before 21 Feb 1364 - 24 Nov 1425
+0  Edward Plantagenet About 1365 - About 1368
+0  John Plantagenet Before 4 May 1366 - ?
+7  King Henry IV 3 Apr 1367 - 20 Mar 1413
+0  Isabel Plantagenet About 1368 - ?
  (The number to the left of each offspring indicates the total number of children for that person.)
 
Marriage: Constance of Castile 1354 - 24 Mar 1394
  Date: Sep 1371 His Age: 31 Her Age: 18
  Place:  Roquefort, Gascony, France
  Offspring:
+3  Katherine Plantagenet 1372 - 2 Jun 1418
+0  John Plantagenet 1374 - 1375
 
Marriage: Katherine Rouet About 1350 - 10 May 1403
  Date: 13 Jan 1397 His Age: 57 Her Age: 47
  Place:  Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England
  Offspring:
+6  John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset About 1373 - 16 Mar 1410
+0  Henry Beaufort About 1375 - 11 Apr 1447
+1  Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter About Jan 1377 - 27 Dec 1426
+15  Joan Beaufort About 1379 - 13 Nov 1440
 

Notes
  • John is sometimes given the title "King of Castile and Leon", a reference to his marriage to Constance of Castile.
     
  • Because John's romance with Katherine Swynford has been such a distinctive part of his biography, it is easy to overlook the devotion he apparently felt for his first wife, Blanche. After her death, he established a number of chantries to say masses for her soul, and funded an expensive yearly memorial service. John's great biographer, Sidney Armitage-Smith reports that there is no evidence that John was ever unfaithful to Blanche.
     
  • In 1377, King Edward III changed the status of John's county of Lancaster, making him the Earl Palatinate, as John's late father-in-law, Henry of Grosmont had been. This had significant implications for the county as a revenue unit, and formed the basis on which John's son Henry IV sectioned off the Duchy of Lancaster to keep its fortune separate from that of the crown. Over the years, the set of transactions has had enormous financial implications for the holder of the duchy (its revenues, for instance, funded much of the Lancastrian war effort in the Wars of the Roses). The duchy's bondsmen were in technical thrall long after serfdom was abolished in England, and Elizabeth I manumitted a great number of them.
     
  • John's third wife, Katherine Swynford, had been his mistress for many years. After they married, their four grown children were legitimized by Richard II as the Beaufort family.
     
  • Among John's lesser-known achievements: some historians credit him with introducing morris dancers to England from Spain.
     
  • According to some sources, John died at Leicester Castle.
     
  • John is depicted in a stained-glass window in the chapel of All Soul's College, University of Oxford. The window apparently shows him late in life, because his hair and beard are almost white.
     
  • In his lifetime, nobody called him John of Gaunt after his very early childhood; the name only became popular 200 years later after Shakespeare used it in Richard II.
     
  • A character in Shakespeare's play Richard II, who says one of the playwright's most famous lines: "This royal throne of kings, this sceptr'd isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, This other Eden, demi-paradise, This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall, Or as a moat defensive to a house, Against the envy of less happier lands; This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England..." Richard II Act 2, scene 1
     
  • In Richard II, Shakespeare assigns John a number of good speeches. After John's son Henry is banished, John gives him some advice: "GAUNT. Call it a travel that thou tak'st for pleasure. BOLINGBROKE. My heart will sigh when I miscall it so, Which finds it an enforced pilgrimage.... GAUNT. All places that the eye of heaven visits Are to a wise man ports and happy havens. Teach thy necessity to reason thus: There is no virtue like necessity." Richard II Act 1, scene 3
     
  • As Gaunt is dying, he admonishes his nephew, King Richard: "Why, cousin, wert thou regent of the world, It were a shame to let this land by lease; But for thy world enjoying but this land, Is it not more than shame to shame it so? Landlord of England art thou now, not King." Richard II Act 2, scene 1
     
  • Click here for Wikipedia article.
     
  • Johnofgaunt

Products of Interest

The following product details are from the Amazon.com web site. If you click on a product title, the relevant Amazon product page will open in a new window. See the end of this page for the pricing small print.


John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe
Anthony Goodman
Paperback  (1992-08-17)

Availability: Temporarily out of stock. Order now and we'll deliver when available. We'll e-mail you with an estimated delivery date as soon as we have more information. Your credit card will not be charged until we ship the item.
Price From: $79.75
(as at 14:38 GMT on 21 Dec 2014)
Royalty for Commoners: The Complete Known Lineage of John of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, King of England, and Queen Philippa (New 4th Edition) Royalty for Commoners: The Complete Known Lineage of John of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, King of England, and Queen Philippa (New 4th Edition)
Roderick W. Stuart
Paperback  (2010-01-28)

Availability: Usually ships in 24 hours
Price From: $39.90
(as at 15:18 GMT on 21 Dec 2014)
The Reign of Edward III The Reign of Edward III
W.M. Ormrod
Hardcover  (2000-02-01)

Availability: Temporarily out of stock. Order now and we'll deliver when available. We'll e-mail you with an estimated delivery date as soon as we have more information. Your credit card will not be charged until we ship the item.
Price From: $34.80
(as at 14:59 GMT on 21 Dec 2014)
The Straw Men (A Brother Athelstan Medieval Mystery) The Straw Men (A Brother Athelstan Medieval Mystery)
Paul Doherty
Hardcover  (2013-03-01)

Availability: Usually ships in 24 hours
Price From: $23.80
(as at 14:39 GMT on 21 Dec 2014)
Follow RoyalGen on Twitter
 
Search the Database:
Names
Titles
Places
Notes
 
Recently Searched:
No searches done yet.
 
Recently Viewed:
Unavailable - not signed in.

Where shown, product prices are accurate as at the date and time indicated. Prices and product availability are subject to change. Any price displayed on the Amazon website at the time of purchase will govern the sale of these products.  Alistair Grieve is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com.
CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE COMES FROM AMAZON SERVICES LLC. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.

This web site copyright © 2002-2014 by Alistair Grieve. All rights reserved.